Ancient Greek architecture is characterized by its highly formalized characteristics, both in terms of structure and decoration. This is particularly true in temples, where each building was conceived as a sculptural unit in the landscape, mostly erected on a hill so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on the surfaces can be seen from all the angles.
The ancient Greek had a unique style of architecture that is still replicated in government buildings and important monuments around the world. Greek architecture characteristics are known for its high columns, intricate details, symmetry, harmony, and balance. The Greeks built all sorts of buildings. The most important examples of Greek architecture that survive today are the great temples they built for their gods.
The continent and the Ancient Greek islands are very rocky, with a coastline with deep scores and steep ridges with few vast forests. The most available building material is stone. Limestone was readily available and easy to work with. Both on the mainland and on the islands, especially on Paros and Naxos, there is a large amount of high-quality white marble. This fine-grained material was an important factor in the precision of the architectural and sculptural details of ancient Greek architecture. Pottery deposits of high quality were found throughout Greece and the islands, with important deposits near Athens. It was not only used for ceramic vessels, but also for tiles and architectural decoration.
The climate of Greece is maritime, the cold of the winter and the summer heat are softened by the sea breeze. This led to a lifestyle where many outdoor activities took place. Therefore, the temples were set up on the hills, their outsides designed as a visual focus for meetings and processions, while the theaters were often an improvement on the natural hillside where people could sit instead of container construction. The colonnades surrounding the buildings or the surrounding courtyards protected the sun and sudden winter storms.
The development of the representation of the human form in ceramics went hand in hand with a similar development in sculpture. The tiny stylized bronzes of the geometric age gave the archaic era the shape of a highly formalized monolithic representation of life-size. The classical period was characterized by a rapid evolution towards idealized but increasingly realistic representations of gods in human form. This development had a direct impact on the sculptural decoration of the temples, as many of the larger surviving works of ancient Greek sculptures once adorned the temples, and many of the largest statues recorded at that time, such as the lost statues of Chryselephantine in Zeus Temple of Zeus in Olympia and Athena in Parthenon, Athens, both over 40 feet high, were once housed in them.
There is a clear distinction between the architecture of the previous Mycenaean culture and the Minoan cultures and that of the ancient Greeks. The techniques and understanding of their style were lost as these civilizations collapsed.
Mycenaean art is characterized by circular structures and conical domes with self-supporting flatbed courses. This architectural form did not move to the architecture of ancient Greece but appeared around 400 BC. Again. C. in large monumental tombs like the lion grave in Cnidos. Little is known about the Mycenaean wood or the house architecture and any tradition that may have originated in the first buildings of the Doric people.
The Minoan architecture of Crete corresponded to that of ancient Greece. It used wooden pillars with capitals, but the pillars differed greatly from the Doric pillars, they were narrow at the base and extended upwards. The first column forms in Greece seem to have developed independently. As with Minoan architecture, ancient Greek interior design focused on open spaces or courtyards surrounded by colonnades. This form was adapted to the construction of hypostyle spaces within the larger temples. The development of the architecture went in the direction of the public building, primarily the temple, and not in the direction of the great domestic architecture that had developed in Crete.
In the three rows of Ancient Greek architecture, the sculptural decoration, whether a simple semicircular talus, a stylized foliage frieze or the ornate sculpture of the gable, is indispensable for the architecture to which it belongs. In the Doric order, there are no differences in placement. The reliefs never decorate the walls arbitrarily. The sculpture is always in several predetermined areas, the metope and the pediment.